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The Stephen Marquardt Phi (golden ratio) mask
The following articles show that Marquardt's Phi mask is inconsistent with the optimal aesthetic preferences of white individuals:
- Mandibular profile. Marquardt's mask leans toward a Class II profile but people most optimally prefer a Class I profile.
- Nasion placement. Marquardt's mask has a nasion placement below the optimal preferences of white North Americans.
- Earlobe proportions. Marquardt's mask has unusually long earlobes as a proportion of ear length.
- Eyebrow position. Marquardt's mask has low-set eyebrows.
The big problem with Marquardt's mask is that it describes the outline of a masculinized white woman even though most people prefer above average femininity in the looks of women.
A problem with Marquardt's Phi mask application as he suggests it be applied and its solution:
- Stephen Marquardt Phi (golden ratio) mask application: a methodological problem.
- Stephen Marquardt Phi mask application: how to compare shape.
Marquardt's mask formally refuted: