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The Stephen Marquardt Phi (golden ratio) mask

The following articles show that Marquardt's Phi mask is inconsistent with the optimal aesthetic preferences of white individuals:

  • Mandibular profile. Marquardt's mask leans toward a Class II profile but people most optimally prefer a Class I profile.
  • Nasion placement. Marquardt's mask has a nasion placement below the optimal preferences of white North Americans.
  • Earlobe proportions. Marquardt's mask has unusually long earlobes as a proportion of ear length.
  • Eyebrow position. Marquardt's mask has low-set eyebrows.

The big problem with Marquardt's mask is that it describes the outline of a masculinized white woman even though most people prefer above average femininity in the looks of women.

A problem with Marquardt's Phi mask application as he suggests it be applied and its solution:

Marquardt's mask formally refuted: